Mathematical logic got its first great boost forward in the 19th Century, though at the time there was little practical use to it.

George Boole is considered the originator of modern mathematical logic, so much so that the field is called Boolean Algebra. He wrote his important treatise The Laws of Thought in the 1850s.

Augustus de Morgan is another important pioneer. The ways to distribute a not sign ~ through parentheses are called de Morgan's laws.

~(p v q) = ~p ^ ~q

~(p ^ q) = ~p v ~q

He was one of the first professors at University College London, the first major school in Great Britain that accepted students who were not Church of England, which meant that Catholics, Jews, protestants of denominations other that Church of England and those who professed no faith whatsoever could get a first class education in Great Britain.

~(p v q) = ~p ^ ~q

~(p ^ q) = ~p v ~q

He was one of the first professors at University College London, the first major school in Great Britain that accepted students who were not Church of England, which meant that Catholics, Jews, protestants of denominations other that Church of England and those who professed no faith whatsoever could get a first class education in Great Britain.

Charles Babbage was another British logician, and he wanted to take mathematical logic to the next step. He designed the world's first mechanical computers, the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine, both of which were designed to run on steam. Problems arose when trying to build the machines and neither was ever completed.

This did not stop Countess Ada Lovelace, the only legitimate daughter of the famed British poet Lord Byron, from designing programs for Babbage's machines. The Countess Lovelace was educated by de Morgan and is given credit as the first computer programmer. the language Ada is named after her.

The best known of the British eccentrics fascinated with logic in the 19th Century was Charles Dodgson a.k.a. Lewis Carroll. While still famous for Alice in Wonderland, he was also a mathematician, clergyman and photographer, and enjoyed putting together logic puzzles based on the ideas of syllogism using silly but logical statements. For example:

(a) No ducks waltz.

(b) No officers ever decline to waltz.

(c) All my poultry are ducks.

Therefore (d) None of my poultry are officers.

(a) No ducks waltz.

(b) No officers ever decline to waltz.

(c) All my poultry are ducks.

Therefore (d) None of my poultry are officers.

Here is also a link to the biographies of five 20th Century mathematicians who made great contributions to the field of computer science when it was much more practical.

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